Type: Companion Dog

Height: 8 - 11 inches.


Life Span: 3 - 7 lbs.

Litter Size: 12 - 15 years.

Country of Origin: 1 - 3 puppies.

Activity: Indoor - Very High. Outdoor - Medium.

Watch-dog: Very High. They will call attention to anything unusual with a shrill yappy bark.

Guard-dog: Very Low. Although defensive and alert, they are not equipped in either physical attributes or bravery to tackle most threats.

Description: The Pomeranian is a natural extrovert enjoying the company of human or canine companionship making them one of the most popular Toy breeds. They adore being pampered and petted but also love to be active and playful. Pomeranians are affectionate and faithful little dogs who make excellent companions. They are a small dog with a fox like appearance. Their tail curls over their back and they have small compact feet. Double coated with a thick undercoat,  they have a straight outer coat. They look like a walking powderpuff of dense hair. They are fluffy, highly-feathered dogs with perfectly proportioned bodies. They have a large coat that requires quite a bit of maintenance, but most are unable to resist their "smiling" faces. This is the smallest of the five sizes of German Spitz. Pomeranians are a confident breed, doing well in the show ring, as long as you can train them. They are not as obedient as other breeds, however, so training must begin early. They are affectionate and loving, demanding attention when they want it. Some say the German Spitz is like a child, anxious to please, yet pushing for their own way, and manipulating to get it. Some have been known to be aggressive towards strange dogs or strange people, making them good watch dogs. They are active, intelligent, alert and independent, yet still cannot resist the attention of their owner. Charming and affectionate, the Pomeranian is a breed whose looks can sometimes overcome any demanding challenge of this breed.

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Other Names: Poms, Toy German Spitz

Colors: All colors, but free from black or white shadings; whole colors are white, black, brown, orange, cream, wolf sable, beaver (dark beige), red, light or dark blue. They can also be particolor.

Coat: Long, straight and harsh with a soft, fluffy undercoat. Very abundant coat.

Temperament: Pomeranians are friendly, active, lively, spunky and are highly trainable. A very clean dog they have been described as catlike. They can be unfriendly to not only strangers but sometimes to people they know and simply do not like if they are not properly socialized. They are alert, active, and curious. They are relatively obedient, and can be anthropomorphized as

With Children: Yes, though they should be supervised as they may not tolerate young children.

With Pets: Yes, good with other pets.

Special Skills: Companion and family pet.

Care and Training: Daily brushing of the long double coat is needed to prevent matting. Monthly bathing is recommended. Pomeranians shed once or twice a year. Clean the eyes, ears and teeth regularly. Pomeranians do not need a large amount of exercise. Indoors at home or a romp in the park will suffice. Barking needs to be curbed from an early age.

Learning Rate: High. Obedience - Very Low. Problem Solving - High.

Living Environment: Apartment or house, city or country, Pomeranians thrive in a busy family atmosphere and love to be pampered. Poms make an excellent companion for the elderly. Some Poms do best in an adult only home. The best owner for this breed would be an adult owner living in a city environment.

Health Issues: Patella luxation, cesarean sections will possibly be needed if the female is small, lost teeth if not well cared for, tracheal collapse, Patent Ductus Arterious, PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), and diabetes.

History: Pomeranians are known to have existed around the eighteenth century in Germany. They resemble the much larger sled-pulling Spitz type dogs from the Arctic Circle, which they are said to have descended from. German Spitz have been around since at least 1450, when they were recorded in German literature. In 1750, Count Eberhand Zu Sayre Buffon wrote in his National History of Quadrupeds that he believed the Spitz was the ancestor of all domestic breeds. The Spitz breeds probably descended from dogs brought to the Germany and Holland, or Scandinavia, by Vikings who plundered and purged the cities during the Renaissance era. It was said that the white spitz lived in Pomerania, while the black ones resided in Würtemberg. Several breeds came from these dogs, including the Keeshond, Wolf Spitz, Giant, Standard and Small German Spitz, as well as the Pomeranian, also known as the Toy German Spitz. The toy Spitz went on to be imported in Great Britain at least 100 years ago, and was from Pomerania in Germany, thusly being renamed the Pomeranian. The Pomeranian was first introduced to Britain in the 19th century weighing around 30 lbs. Today the toy Spitz and the Pomeranian are considered different breeds. Queen Victoria took such delight in these dogs that at one time they were called Victorian Poms. Many of the breeds were recorded in paintings as well. In 1899 the German Spitz Club was formed, and the breed was official. Smaller and smaller Pomeranians began to dominate the show ring in England, and some began to miss the larger breed, the Giant German Spitz. The dogs got so small to the extent that the show ring cancelled any classes for Pomeranians over 7 lbs. in the 1940s! Around the turn of the 20th century the breed made its way to America and became thusly popular. Today they are a very popular breed used mainly as a companion and show dog.

First Registered by the AKC: 1888

AKC Group: Toy Group

Class: Toy

Registries: AKC, ANKC, CKC, FCI (Group 5), KC (GB), UKC